What is RESOURCE CURSE? What does RESOURCE CURSE mean? RESOURCE CURSE meaning - RESOURCE CURSE definition - RESOURCE CURSE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, specifically non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. This is hypothesized to happen for many different reasons, and there are many academic debates about when and why it occurs. Most experts believe the resource curse is not universal or inevitable, but affects certain types of countries or regions under certain conditions. The idea that resources might be more of an economic curse than a blessing began to emerge in debates in the 1950s and 1960s about the economic problems of low and middle-income countries. The term resource curse was first used by Richard Auty in 1993 to describe how countries rich in mineral resources were unable to use that wealth to boost their economies and how, counter-intuitively, these countries had lower economic growth than countries without an abundance of natural resources. An influential study by Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner found a strong correlation between natural resource abundance and poor economic growth. Hundreds of studies have now evaluated the effects of resource wealth on a wide range of economic outcomes, and offered many explanations for how, why, and when a resource curse is likely to occur. While "the lottery analogy has value but also has shortcomings", many observers have likened the resource curse to the difficulties that befall lottery winners who struggle to manage the complex side-effects of newfound wealth. The IMF classifies 51 countries as “resource-rich.” These are countries which derive at least 20% of exports or 20% of fiscal revenue from nonrenewable natural resources. 29 of these countries are low- and lower-middle-income. Common characteristics of these 29 countries include (i) extreme dependence on resource wealth for fiscal revenues, export sales, or both; (ii) low saving rates; (iii) poor growth performance; and (iv) highly volatile resource revenues. A 2016 meta-study finds weak support for the thesis that resource richness adversely affects long-term economic growth. The authors note that "approximately 40% of empirical papers finding a negative effect, 40% finding no effect, and 20% finding a positive effect" but "overall support for the resource curse hypothesis is weak when potential publication bias and method heterogeneity are taken into account." Natural resources are a source of economic rent which can generate large revenues for those controlling them even in the absence of political stability and wider economic growth. Their existence is a potential source of conflict between factions fighting for a share of the revenue, which may take the form of armed separatist conflicts in regions where the resources are produced or internal conflict between different government ministries or departments for access to budgetary allocations. This tends to erode governments' abilities to function effectively. Even when politically stable, countries whose economies are dominated by resource extraction industries tend to be less democratic and more corrupt. According to one academic study, a country that is otherwise typical but has primary commodity exports around 5% of GDP has a 6% risk of conflict, but when exports are 25% of GDP the chance of conflict rises to 33%. "Ethno-political groups are more likely to resort to rebellion rather than using nonviolent means or becoming terrorists when representing regions rich in oil." There are several factors behind the relationship between natural resources and armed conflicts. Resource wealth may increase the vulnerability of countries to conflicts by undermining the quality of governance and economic performance (the "resource curse" argument). Secondly, conflicts can occur over the control and exploitation of resources and the allocation of their revenues (the "resource war" argument). Thirdly, access to resource revenues by belligerents can prolong conflicts (the "conflict resource" argument).
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Das theoretische Konzept des Ressourcenfluchs (resource curse) beschreibt jenes, auf dem ersten Blick Paradox erscheinende Phänomen, dass Ressourcenreichtum vieler Länder nicht zur Vermehrung von Wohlstand und Entwicklung, sondern zu Armut, Staatszerfall, (Bürger-)Kriege, Krisen, Gewalt und Korruption führen (Croll, Guesnet & Schmitz 2012: 23; Vgl. Schärer 2016: 9). Basis dieses Videos sind u.a. folgende Quellen: Auty, R. M. (2009). Natural resource rent-cycling outcomes in Botswana, Indonesia and Venezuela. In I. Khodeli (Hrsg.), From curse to blessing? Using natural resources to fuel sustainable development (S. 33-44). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell & UNESCO. Collier, P. (2008): Die unterste Milliarde – warum die ärmsten Länder scheitern und was man dagegen tun kann, München: C.H. Beck. Cord, Jakobeit/ Meißner, Hannes (2011): Frieden und Ressourcen, In: Gießmann, Hans/ Rinke, Bernhard (Hrsg.): Handbuch Frieden, Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, S. 518-528. Emmerling, J. (2005). Der Fluch natürlicher Ressourcen - Eine wirtschaftspolitische und politökonomische Analyse. Berlin: Freie Universität zu Berlin. Gel’man, Vladimir/ Marganiya, Otar (2010): Resource Curse and Post-Soviet Eurasia: Oil, Gas and Modernization, Lexington Books. Holden, Steinar (2013): Avoiding the resource curse the case Norway. Energy Policy 63(2013), 870-876. Le Billon, P. (2013): Wars of Plunder. Conflicts, profits and the politics of resources, Oxford: New York. Roithner, Thomas (2015): Rohstoffsicherheit, In: Jäger, Thomas (Hg.): Handbuch Sicherheitsgefahren, Reihe Globale Gesellschaft und internationale Beziehungen, Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, S. 65-74. Sachs, J. D. & Warner, A. M. (12 1995). Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth. NBR Working Paper Series. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. Schärer, Karin (2016): Ressourcenreichtum als Fluch oder Segen, Schriftreihe der Kalaidos Fachhochschule Schweiz. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag. Schulz, Heinrich (2018): Die Erdgasexporte Turkmenistans. Energie- und geopolitische Interessen in der Kaspischen Region. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag. Stimpfle, Alexander M. (2010): Resource Curse in the context of “Socialism of the 21st Century”. Bremen: Jacobs University. UNCTAD (2007). World Investment Report 2007 - Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and Development. Geneva: United Nations Publication. Qaraman Mohammed, Hasan (2019): The power of constition for enacting energy law and managing natural resource. The case of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s oil contracts. Energy Policy 128(2019), 744-751. Folge meinem Blog: http://www.josefmuehlbauer.com Twitter: @JosefMuehlbauer Zum Friedensinstitut: Website: http://www.vipr-bg.com Youtube: VIPR - Varna Peace Institute Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/VIPResearch/ Twitter: @VPeaceInstitute Instagram: @varnapeaceinstitute Folge meinem Blog: http://www.josefmuehlbauer.com Twitter: @JosefMuehlbauer Zum Friedensinstitut: Website: http://www.vipr-bg.com Youtube: VIPR - Varna Peace Institute Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/VIPResearch/ Twitter: @VPeaceInstitute Instagram: @varnapeaceinstitute Creative Commons: CC-by-nc-sa
Views: 110 Josef Muehlbauer
Jeffrey Sachs and Tyler Cowen discuss the resource curse, why Russia failed and Poland succeeded, charter cities, Sach's China optimism, JFK, Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, whether Africa will be able to overcome the middle income trap, Paul Krugman, Sach's favorite novel, premature deindustrialization, and how to reform graduate economics education. Transcript and related readings: https://medium.com/conversations-with-tyler/jeffrey-sachs-on-the-future-of-economic-development-2650c27b2776 iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/conversations-with-tyler/id983795625 Audio link: https://soundcloud.com/conversationswithtyler/jeffrey-sachs-on-the-future-of-economic-development Stay Connected Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/mercatuscenter/ Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/mercatus Email: http://www.mercatus.org/newsletters
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Resource curse 00:00:34 1 Resource curse thesis 00:02:22 2 Economic effects 00:03:49 2.1 Dutch disease 00:06:14 2.2 Revenue volatility 00:08:45 2.3 Enclave effects 00:09:54 2.4 Human resources 00:10:53 2.5 Incomes and employment 00:12:20 3 Political effects 00:13:09 3.1 Violence and conflict 00:18:26 3.2 Democracy and human rights 00:24:12 3.3 Distribution 00:25:06 3.4 Gender inequality 00:25:35 3.5 International cooperation 00:26:02 3.6 Foreign aid 00:26:52 4 Criticisms 00:31:23 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources (such as fossil fuels and certain minerals), tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. There are many theories and much academic debate about the reasons for, and exceptions to, these adverse outcomes. Most experts believe the resource curse is not universal or inevitable, but affects certain types of countries or regions under certain conditions.
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Cap, Auction, and Trade: Auctions and Revenue Recycling Under Carbon Cap and Trade - Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming - 2008-01-23 - Going Once, Going Twice . . . Select Committee to Examine Auction System in Climate Cap-and-Trade Bill. On Wednesday, January 23rd 2008, Chairman Edward Markey (D-Mass.) and the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming held a hearing entitled "Cap, Auction, and Trade: Auctions and Revenue Recycling Under Carbon Cap and Trade." This hearing examined the potential role of auctioning tradable pollution allowances under a cap-and-trade system to reduce global warming pollution, instead of giving them away for free to polluters - and potential uses for the tens of billions of dollars that could be generated through such auctions. PANEL: Hon. Ian Bowles, Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Commonwealth of Massachusetts; Peter Zapfel, Coordinator for Carbon Markets and Energy Policy, European Commission - Environment Directorate General; Dallas Burtraw, Senior Fellow, Resources for the Future; John Podesta, President and Chief Executive Officer, Center for American Progress; Robert Greenstein, Executive Director, Center on Budget Policies and Priorities. Video provided by the U.S. House of Representatives.
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